About 10,000 years ago, humans began to make fundamental changes in the way they live. Slowly moving away from a nomadic lifestyle, and began to stay in one place for a long time. This is presumably because at the end of the ice age the available resources began to overflow. Humans do not have to travel far to find food, so they will stay where the food is plentiful. Over time, a more sedentary lifestyle brings some challenges for them.
Instead of having to search for caves or temporary shelters made of animal skins for protection from the weather, people start looking for a durable materials to build a shelter that can also last a long time. Eventually humans using a variety of materials, and they are constantly developing search and discovery to create a durable structure in order to meet the ever changing demands. Architecture evolution are increasingly able to meet these challenges and to accommodate the cultural perception of how the building should look aesthetically and how they can function properly. Here are five of materials structure architecture evolution results from the most reliable in building houses, buildings, temples, and other buildings. The fifth is still a favorite material to use to this day because it proved powerful and durable. By knowing a little information about it will help us learn how the history of the humble cottage thousands of years ago could grow up to be a skyscraper in today’s technology era.
As a construction material, wood has many advantages to become one of the most reliable from the first to today. It can be used as the primary material of construction such as columns and supporting the roof, the wood can also be used as a decorative element. Wood is lighter than stone. But his strength was no doubt. Especially if you’ve had a good drying process. Another plus is easily cut into different sizes, and even set up with a variety of patterns. However, wood also has some disadvantages. Among others, are susceptible to damage from moisture so it can rot, and the loss caused by insects such as termites gnawed. Fire is also a great enemy to the timber. Although it has some vulnerabilities, grace real wood can last a long time. Just does not strong other materials as will be discussed next. For additional information, the oldest wooden buildings in the world are thought to Horyu-ji, a temple in Japan which was built in the 8th century.
Bricks including construction materials that are durable, weather resistant, fire retardant, easy to make, and easy to install. Generally made of clay bricks have been used in ancient structures such as aqueducts in Rome, the Pantheon, and the Great Wall of China. Sumerians recorded the earliest brick making. Of some of the literature it can be concluded that the bricks used in the initial construction, the form of rough, uneven, and dried in the direct sunlight, likely made of mud that is deposited when the water receded after a violent storm. Mud are left to dry naturally in order to have consistency in the violence, then dug up, broken into pieces beams, and are used to make the walls of the lodge and other structures. Several experiments have resulted in the development of forms and molds to make bricks of uniform dimensions, so it can be stacked easily and produces a smooth wall with a clean corner. How to manufacture conventional bricks as mentioned above is still used to this day and is very stable in the dry climate. The problem is when the rainy season made it difficult to dry naturally. To overcome this kind of oven then be made by applying a very high heat so that the water content in the brick can be reduced to the maximum. Even with better technology, now there is a brick called Hebel, which is a mixture of quartz sand, lime and cement. Hebel is lighter and stronger. But the price is also more expensive than conventional bricks.
Stone is a durable material, but also challenging to be mined, heavy to be moved, and have limitations in the tense (tension) and tensile (stress). Where there are resources that can be extracted and are precision cutting tools, stone natural ingredients that can be very powerful and useful.Unlike brick, stone can be stacked or arranged without the aid of mortar and can support heavy vertical loads. Stone material is also anti-changed betuk (deformation), resistant to weather and fire, and can support the interior look even without makeup. There are so many unique stone structure with a variety of textures are still the main attraction for a decorative element in modern construction though. Currently it has a lot of cheap building materials and more efficient to replace the stone in the construction of modern buildings. Instead stone motif is only used as decorative coatings (veneer) applied to the other material that is lighter than the rock in order to appear ‘like’ a real stone. However, steel, wood, or concrete construction with a thin layer at the surface as a decorative stone accent is more in line with the budget, modern look, and building construction standards compared with the purely composed of towering rock, which is actually more like a historic building. Synthetic stone can even mimic the look of stone exactly original but much lighter, cheaper, and more easily applied to technology. However the stone is still popular for aesthetic value. And it’s hard to be completely eliminated as an element of construction and decoration.
Concrete is an aggregate that is composed of a number of materials such as stone and sand mix with binders such as cement and water. The mixture is then left to dry and harden. Concrete is a versatile material that can be formed in place, or poured into molds to harden and then transported after. alaupun been made since hundreds of years ago, around the year 1860 but then found the idea that the concrete can be strengthened to increase the carrying capacity (the amount of force or tension that can withstand heavier load), so that the concrete began to be widely accepted.Reinforced concrete can be formed into various shapes with narrow steel rod support structure that is embedded directly in the concrete when poured mortar constituent material. Presence of reinforcing steel (rebar) in the concrete makes concrete an ideal material for forming the structure of the walls, beams, floors, foundation, frame, and many other applications. The use of metal rods and nets together with the media will make it concrete reinforced concrete structures are relatively inexpensive, flexible, reliable, and economical. Technological advances in the 20th century have made of reinforced concrete as a ‘player’ in the larger modern building design and construction. Concrete is made of pre-printed under the control of the manufacturing process to improve the characteristics of the water content reduction and limiting the capacity of its spread. While in the pre-tensile concrete, made with steel strands are pulled spread as hardened concrete, reinforced concrete increase tensile strength, and resist deflection pressure.
IRON AND STEEL
We build multi-storey buildings (especially skyscrapers), stronger building materials certainly indispensable to support higher structures. Tall buildings, will put a lot of load on the outer wall, which is a kind of frame buffer is needed to support the load. We can see that the steel has a dual role in construction of buildings. Which can be embedded in concrete as a supporting element, or it becomes the foundation itself. Steel can easily diprefabrikasi that can be installed quickly and easily, either by way of welded, riveted, or bolted in place. Besides the steel can be recycled up to 100 percent, so it fits with the concept of green building. Steel is also a relatively economical choice for commercial buildings and for residential buildings. The emergence of the steel technology that allows people to design and build structures taller building has changed the face of architecture and extend the way we find creative solutions to building skyscrapers.